BASAL GANGLIA LÀ GÌ

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The “basal ganglia” refers to lớn a group of subcortical nuclei within the brain responsible primarily for motor control, as well as other roles such as motor learning, executive sầu functions, emotional behaviours, với play an important role in reward cùng reinforcement, addictive behaviours cùng habit formation. The basal ganglia are located at the base of the forebrain (cerebrum) và have attracted attention in medicine for various disturbances that appear with dysfunctions caused by diseases or trauma. Disruption of the basal ganglia network forms the basis for several movement disorders eg Parkinson”s Disease, Huntington Disease. Proposed more than two decades ago, the classical basal ganglia mã mặt hàng shows how information flows through the basal ganglia baông xã lớn the cortex through two pathways with opposing effects for the proper execution of movement. Much of the mã món đồ has remained today however the mã sản phẩm has been modified với amplified with the emergence of new data. The basal ganglia network is now viewed as multiple parallel loops với re-entering circuits whereby motor, associative, và limbic territories are engaged mainly in the control of movement, behaviour, với emotions. These parallel circuits subserve the other functions of the basal ganglia engaging associative sầu cùng limbic territories. Bài Viết: Basal ganglia là gì


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Structure

The basal ganglia are a cluster of subcortical nuclei deep khổng lồ cerebral hemispheres. The largest component of the basal ganglia is the corpus striatum which contains the caudate cùng lenticular nuclei (the putamen, globus pallidus externus, với internus), the subthalamic nucleus (STN), và the substantia nigra (SN). These structures intricately synapse onkhổng lồ one another khổng lồ promote or antagonize movement. Divisions of the Basal Ganglia ie subcortical nuclei.
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Corpus Striatum– (The largest subcortical brain structure of the basal ganglia is the striatum with a volume of approximately 10 cm). It is a heterogeneous structure that receives afferents from several cortical và subcortical structures cùng projects lớn various basal ganglia nuclei. Within the striatum, there are two main divisions Dorsal striatum (DS) see image, shown in red. Primarily involved in control over conscious motor movements với executive sầu functions. Thedorsalstriatum consists of thecaudate nucleusvà theputamen. Awhite matter,nerve sầu tract(theinternal capsule) in the dorsal striatum separates thecaudate nucleusvà theputamen. Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) – a lens-shaped cell group that makes up the largest part of thesubthalamus
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Pathophysiology

The basal ganglia are particularly associated with movement disorders. Associated with damage khổng lồ the BG are: tremors; involuntary muscle movements; abnormal increase in tone; difficulty initiating movements; abnormal posture. Movement disorders comprise a variety of motor problems, not all of which are associated with dysfunction of the basal ganglia. Those that have a clearly established pathological basis cùng are caused by pathophysiological mechanisms directly involving the basal ganglia include

Physiotherapy – Implications From Recent Studies

The importance và value of exercise are becoming more cùng more apparent for a whole raft of health conditions. Here are a few of the lademo findings re exercise với BG function.
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